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Species Spotlight

The pygmy seahorse is one of the most well camouflaged species in the oceans, being very difficult to spot amongst the gorgonian coral it lives in.

Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae

TitleConservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsVincent, ACJ, Foster SJ, Koldewey HJ
JournalJournal of Fish Biology
Pagination1681 - 1724
Date Published06/2011
Keywordsaquarium trade, by-catch, habitat degradation, threatened species, traditional Chinese medicine

This article analyses the pressures on seahorses and explores conservation responses. It focuses on seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) but also considers pipefishes and seadragons, especially where they can fill gaps in seahorse knowledge. The charisma of many syngnathids can make them good flagship species for threats and solutions in marine conservation. The article combines a synthesis of published literature with new data on the trade in seahorses for traditional medicine, aquarium display and curiosities. Most traded seahorses come from trawl by-catch, although seahorses are also targeted. The total extraction is large, tens of millions of animals annually, and unsustainable. A first review of the effect of habitat change on syngnathids raises many questions, while suggesting that some species may cope better than others. The combination of pressures means that many species of syngnathid are now included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species or national equivalents. In addition, seahorse exports from 175 countries are limited to sustainable levels under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of Wild Fauna and Flora. Possible conservation measures include marine protected areas, fisheries management, select aquaculture ventures, trade regulation, improved governance (particularly) and consumer engagement.