On Conservation
The Project Seahorse Blog

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On Conservation is a regularly updated mix of field notes, expert commentary, and miscellanea about marine conservation by the Project Seahorse team. 

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Small-scale artisanal fisheries that target sedentary stocks have been largely ignored by fisheries management agencies, despite their great importance for food security and livelihoods. We...

Posted by Danika Kleiber
20 Jan 2015

Dr. Danika Kleiber recently completed a PhD on gender and fisheries with Project Seahorse. Over the next little while she’ll be documenting her post-doctoral life here on the blog. 

I submitted the final version of my PhD thesis from a coffee shop in Missoula, Montana. I’d promised my partner that we would spend the autumn in his hometown as we figured out where life would take us next, and Missoula was a scenic stop on our way to Corner Brook, Newfoundland. I was done my doctorate and now  I was moving into my in-laws’ basement in a remote part of Canada.  Yikes. (Important note: my in-laws are wonderful and generous people and I am very grateful for their willingness to put us up/put up with us. Hi, guys!)

The good news is that a basement can be a great place to figure out your next move. In November, out of the blue, WorldFish, an international research agency, asked me if I could do a short contract for them. They had received my CV from my colleague Dr. Yoshitaka Oda, who had asked for it in passing as I packed up my office at UBC’s Fisheries Centre and prepared for the cross-country move. Which goes to show you that opportunity takes many different forms.

WorldFish emailed me on a Thursday and wanted me to show up in Bangladesh the following Monday. It was a sudden and exciting opportunity. I figured I should keep my options open, so on the way out the door I applied for yet another job, a post-doc position at Memorial University. Four flights and 36 hours later, I landed in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. 

The first part of my contract was to participate in a consultative workshop of fisheries stakeholders. WorldFish was starting a five-year program to improve the sustainability of small-scale fisheries in Bangladesh. I was there because gender was on the agenda. I sat there hoping my PhD would prepare me to contribute to a workshop on a fishery I had only just started to read about, and a culture that I had never experienced before. 

The lessons I’d learned from my doctoral work were immediately useful. When alternative livelihoods were discussed as an important way to ease fishing pressure, I asked if that assumption was going to be tested because it wasn’t necessarily an effective strategy, as research has shown (thank you, Dr. Nick Hill). And when they formulated the project as comprising three pillars — science, management, and social issues — I had the critical background to realize that the strategy would be better reformulated to account for the scale and the connections between these different issues, something akin to Project Seahorse’s Onion World philosophy

The second and perhaps completely unsurprising legacy of my PhD was the confidence it has given me. After the workshop, I made a five-day field visit to cities and villages in Southern Bangladesh. I was given very little information about the plan or purpose of the trip so my mantra quickly became “roll with it.”  When visiting a fishing community our host suddenly turned to me and told me I could join a group of women to ask them questions. Our sightseeing trip had rapidly morphed into a rapid assessment.  Great. I knew exactly what I wanted to ask.

When for the third time in a community meeting I noticed that the women were standing behind us like colorful wallpaper, I insisted that our chairs be turned so we could face the carefully maintained divide between women and men head on. And at every meeting with government fisheries officials I did not hesitate to ask how they incorporated women and men into their community engagement efforts. 

I came back to Corner Brook two weeks later with a head full of ideas and an interview scheduled for the post-doc position at Memorial University. 

Posted by Clayton Manning
10 Dec 2014
Matsumoto Castle, Japan. Clayton Manning/Project Seahorse

Over the past year-and-a-half I can’t count the number of times I’ve woken up and thought, “how the hell did I get here?” Not just geographically, but intellectually, too. 

In November 2012, entirely for fun, I started a volunteer research project with a biologist at the University of Calgary who I had met during my undergrad. In that project I took thousands of photos of bumblebee wings, then digitized and analyzed them. I was investigating how bumblebee morphology (the shape and form of their bodies) affected the characteristics of their wings, and the work couldn’t have been more terrestrial. 

Only a few months later, in February 2013, I caught a flight from Calgary to Tokyo, Japan. It was the first time I'd ever left North America. I was moving to a country that I knew nothing about, where I knew nobody, and where I knew absolutely none of the very unique local language. I spent the next 20 months teaching English and immersing myself in Japanese culture.

Fecal coliform colonies. Clayton Manning/Project Seahorse

Now I’m now living in Vancouver and a graduate student with  Project Seahorse, an organization whose work couldn't be any farther, in a physical sense, from the stuff I've been doing. Instead of looking at blown-up pictures of bumblebee wings on a computer screen, I will be diving to investigate the trophic behavior of seahorses. If variety is the spice of life, someone must have hit me in the face with a rack of it.

Some would argue that because my research background has been largely microscopic and land-based, I’m not suited to do research on marine fishes. Before bumblebees I studied mountain pine beetles, where I showed that the amount of monoterpenes (a vaporous chemical) a pine tree releases affects the ability of the females beetles to lay eggs. And before that I worked in Alberta rivers, and revealed how solar radiation is a more important killer of fecal (poop) coliform than water pH. But I would argue it is the breadth of my research base and my recent personal past that will allow me to conduct successful research.

Mountain pine beetle egg galleries. The beetles are an invasive species. Clayton Manning/Project Seahorse

Conservation is a tricky corner of science, where you need to employ a wide range of skills and learn many of those you don’t. It is an intricate mixture of ecology and social sciences, with a dash of physical sciences such as chemistry that is churned by economics. If you look at it from only an ecological perspective, you will completely miss the human-related reasons for why some communities are forced to exploit a resource.

But if you look too closely at the human side of things, you may miss the potential biological reasons for declining species populations such as trophic cascades or invasive species (such as mountain pine beetles). If that isn’t difficult enough, every day the impacts of climate change on conservation are becoming more and more prominent. Conservationists are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary, adaptive and creative problem-solvers.

It could therefore be a positive that I’ve needed to figure out how to build a water-bath that keeps poop bacteria at a constant temperature. Who knows, maybe during my thesis I’ll need to be able to build a cage for seahorses that regulates the size of the zooplankton (a tiny organism seahorses feed on) that is allowed to enter. Or maybe my painful 36 consecutive hours of peeling pine tree logs to find pine beetles I had implanted a week before will allow me to more effectively conduct early-morning fisher interviews, all-day visual census dives and late-night data entry for weeks on end. It is also possible that my year and half of learning how to communicate effectively in a broken foreign language will give me a leg up when conducting field work in another new country.

Although the last two years have been a trip for all of my senses, and although I find myself face-to-face with a brand new challenge, it is the diversity of my research and recent life experiences that I will look upon to complete my Master’s degree. Whether it be on fish or insects, in forests or oceans, one’s ability to do good science is dependent on problem-solving and resourcefulness. This especially so in conservation, when all elements of the human and natural environment may be at play.

So when, inevitably, the day comes that I need to overcome some strange, unforeseen issue in the waters of a faraway land… you can bet I’ll be thinking about either beetles or poo.

Posted by Tyler Stiem
1 Dec 2014

Congratulations to Els Van Den Borre, Roberto Strafella, and Salvador J.R. Lao, this year's grand prize winner and two finalists for Guylian's Seahorses of the World Photo Competition! Here are their photos, re-posted for your viewing pleasure alongside images from the award ceremony at the Nelos Underwater Video and Photography Festival in Ghent, Belgium on Nov. 29, 2014. Thanks again to all who participated!

Els Van Den Borre's grand prize-winning photo of a Denise's pygmy seahorse (H. denise). Bali, Indonesia. 
Finalist Roberto Strafella's photo of a long-snouted seahorse (H. guttulatus). Taranto, Italy. 
Finalist Salvador J.R. Lao's thorny seahorse (H. histrix). Anilao Batangas, Philippines.
Grand prize winner Els Van Den Borre (center) with Nelos organizer Ivo Madder (left), Guylian's Mieke Callebaut (right), and Project Seahorse's Dr. Lucy Woodall (far right). 
Dr. Lucy Woodall gives a talk about iSeahorse, our pioneering citizen science tool for seahorse research and conservation.
Posted by Tyler Stiem
28 Nov 2014

And here's the fifth and final batch of Guylian Seahorses of the World semi-finalists. Check back soon for the finalists and grand prize winner!

Thorny seahorse (H. histrix). Dahab, Egypt. Erik Geerts/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Thorny seahorse (H. histrix). Dahab, Egypt. Luc Rooman/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Tiger tail seahorse (H. comes). Moalboal, Philippines. Jef Driesen/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Bargibant's pygmy seahorse (H. bargibanti). Dumagette, Philippines. Rudi Rombouts/Guylian Seahorses of the World

Posted by Tyler Stiem
27 Nov 2014

Here's the fourth batch of Guylian Seahorses of the World semi-finalists:

Bargibant's pygmy seahorse (H. bargibanti). Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Rudi Rombouts/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Short-snouted seahorse (H. hippocampus). Taranto, Italy. Roberto Strafella/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Long-snouted seahorse (H. guttulatus). Taranto, Italy. Roberto Strafella/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Long-snouted seahorse (H. guttulatus). Tossa de Mare, Girona, Spain. Rafael Cosme Daza/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Long-snouted seahorse (H. guttulatus). Lanveoc, Brittany, France. John de Jong/Guylian Seahorses of the World

Posted by Tyler Stiem
26 Nov 2014

Here's the third batch of Guylian Seahorses of the World semi-finalists:

Satomi's pygmy seahorse (H. satomiae). Raja Ampat, Indonesia. Massimo Giorgetta/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Thorny seahorse (H. histrix). Anilao Batangas, Philippines. Salvador JR Lao/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Bargibant's pygmy seahorse (H. bargibanti). Lembeh Strait, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Dirk Crutelle/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Thorny seahorse (H. histrix). Negros, Philippines. Koen Willemse/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Thorny seahorse (H. histrix). Pantai Nama Slope, Indonesia. Harvey Buyst/Guylian Seahorses of the World

Posted by Tyler Stiem
25 Nov 2014

Here's the second batch of Guylian Seahorses of the World semi-finalists. (You can see the first batch here.)

Short-snouted seahorse (H. hippocampus). Oosterschelde, Netherlands. Rinie Luykx/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Denise's pygmy seahorse (H. denise). Raja Ampat, Indonesia. Bettina Balnis/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Thorny seahorses (H. histrix). Tulanben, Bali, Indonesia. Bettina Balnis/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Bargibant's pygmy seahorse (H. bargibanti). Lembeh Strait, Indonesia. Goos Van der Heide/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Denise's pygmy seahorse (H. denise). Bali, Indonesia. Els Van Den Borre/Guylian Seahorses of the World
Posted by Tyler Stiem
24 Nov 2014

One of the fun things we get to do here at Project Seahorse is take part in Guylian's Seahorses of the World Photo Competition. This biennial competition brings together some of the best underwater photographers from around the world. As members of the prize jury Project Seahorse helps to choose the finalists from incredible seahorse photographs from all over the globe — everywhere from the Middle East to the Pacific to Asia and Europe.

It's never an easy job, but it's always fun. And it's for a great cause!

Thanks to the generosity of Guylian Belgian Chocolate, co-sponsor NELOS-Festival, and the amazing photographers who participate, we receive these stunning new images as donations to our ever-growing database. We use the images for our scientific work and to promote seahorse conservation. The winners of the Seahorses of the World Competition will be announced at the NELOS Underwater Photo and Film Festival in Ghent, Belgium on November 29, 2014.

Today, we're pleased to show you five of the grand prize nominees. And stay tuned, because we'll be posting more of the nominees every day this week. 

 Short-snouted seahorse (H. hippocampus). Oosterschelde, Netherlands. Gino Symus/Guylian Seahorses of the World
 Thorny seahorse (H. histrix). Ambon, Indonesia. Terry Steeley/Guylian Seahorses of the World
 Yellow seahorse (H. kuda). Lembeh Strait, Indonesia. Bruno Van Saen/Guylian Seahorses of the World
 Short-snouted seahorse (H. hippocampus). Tamariu, Costa Brava, Spain. Gino Meskens/Guylian Seahorses of the World
 Long-snouted seahorse (H. guttulatus). Tamariu, Costa Brava, Spain. Gino Meskens/Guylian Seahorses of the World